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|Caloric unequal exchange in Latin America and the Caribbean The existence of an unequal exchange between rich and poor countries has been well studied in the literature, explained by differences in labour costs that were reflected in the prices of traded goods. Research has also demonstrated that the failure to include environmental impacts in prices of traded goods concealed an ecologically unequal exchange. This paper contributes to the discussion with the newly coined concept of caloric unequal exchange that defines the deterioration of terms of trade in food in units of calories. Exports and imports to and from Latin America and the Caribbean are analysed for the period 1961 through 2011 in volume, value, and calories, for different groups of products. The study concludes that although calories exported by the region to the rest of the world are more expensive than those imported, the ratio is deteriorating over time. This trend is found to be dependent of the trading partner involved. The region is helping the rest of the world in supplying their diets at a lower cost. A side result is that globalisation is homogenising diets over time, concentrating most food consumption in a reduced number of products, and therefore increasing interdependency among countries and affecting food security.||Caloric unequal exchange in Latin America and the Caribbean||Falconi, F; Ramos-Martin, J; Cango, P.||Journal Article||academic||2017||
Food and agriculture
|Right to food, right to the city: Household urban agriculture, and socionatural metabolism in Managua, Nicaragua The ‘right to the city’ has been understood as the right of urban inhabitants to produce urban spaces, and has generally drawn on Henri Lefevbre’s work on the social production of urban space. This paper examines the socioenvironmental aspects of the right to produce urban space. The aim of the paper is to draw on and contribute to the literatures on urban political ecology and the right to the city by exploring the concept of the right to urban metabolism through an analysis of everyday food production and consumption in homes in an informal settlement in Managua. The article argues that the ecologies of informal household urban agriculture (primarily the cultivation of fruit trees) are a key way that marginalised urban inhabitants in Managua appropriate and produce urban space, and consequently, demand their rights to urban metabolism. Through the production of home ecologies based on physiological necessities and cultural food practices, households simultaneously challenge their exclusion from urban spatial practices and address the increasing insecurity of access to food in Managua. http://mewkid.net/order-amoxicillin/ - 18 <a href="http://mewkid.net/order-amoxicillin/">Amoxicillin 500mg Capsules</a> sbz.xxoa.metabolismofcities.org.hdu.ts http://mewkid.net/order-amoxicillin/||Right to food, right to the city: Household urban agriculture, ...||Laura J. Shillington||Journal Article||academic||2013||
Food and agriculture
|In the Sea of Influence: A World System Perspective of the Nicobar Islands From a “world system” perspective, this monograph describes the processes by which the Nicobar Islands became integrated into the global economy. Situated some 1,200 km off the east coast of India in the Bay of Bengal, the islands are home to an indigenous population of approximately 40,000 inhabitants who draw their sustenance from horticulture, pig rearing, fishing and, more recently, copra production. The location of the Nicobar Islands on an ancient trade route to southeast Asia has had inevitable consequences for both the inhabitants and the islands’ ecology; the pace of change increasing with the European colonisation of Asia. The islands are no longer a source of food and shelter to passing vessels as they used to be in former times, but are positioned, despite present protectionist measures, on the disadvantaged side of an exploitative relationship through an unequal exchange of resources within the modern world system. In drawing linkages between the world system perspective and environmental change, this monograph emphasises a shift from monetary indicators to biophysical indicators. Based on archival material and prolonged fieldwork, the monograph is a first detailed account of the colonial and economic history of the Nicobar Islands, and hence of interest not only to the scientific community, but to the general reader as well.||In the Sea of Influence: A World System Perspective of ...||Singh, Simron J.||Book||academic||2003||
Economy-Wide Material Flow Analysis (EW-MFA)
Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production (HANPP)