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|Comprehensive evaluation on industrial & urban symbiosis by combining MFA, carbon footprint and emergy methods—Case of Kawasaki, Japan One proposed strategy to solve current environmental challenges is industrial and urban symbiosis (I/UrS); however, appropriate evaluation methods are needed so that the potential benefits of I/UrS can be quantified. Several evaluation methods have been applied separately to study I/UrS, but no integrated studies have been conducted by applying different methods in the same case study area. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a comprehensive framework to evaluate I/UrS by combining the material flow analysis (MFA), carbon footprint (CF) and emergy methods. First, we developed a unified database and step-by-step process to clarify the waste distribution and recycling processes in an industrial city. Then a baseline scenario and an I/UrS scenario were set up to define the baselines and effects of I/UrS and compare the results. Finally, the three methods were applied to identify physical features in the I/UrS system. The MFA-based results showed that the use of I/UrS led to a 6.4% reduction in the physical value of material use. The CF-based results indicated that reduction of waste and by-products results in a 13.8% reduction in CO2e emissions. The emergy-based results showed that, with the implementation of I/UrS, the value of the emergy sustainability index (excluding labor and services) improved greatly (a 49.2% emergy reduction) as compared with the baseline case (a 14.3% reduction). In addition, the effects of implementing I/UrS by waste and by-product exchanges for blast furnace slag, scrap steel, waste paper, and waste plastic were evaluated. Whereas the CF reductions of unit ton of blast furnace slag is relatively low, emergy reductions of that is comparatively high. If policymakers only consider CF results when addressing the issue of climate change, the effects on emergy will be underestimated in this case. We conclude that the main actors in this area release huge emissions, but they also have a high potential to reduce their environmental loads. In addition, with appropriate designs, waste paper and plastics recycling could be highly efficient. Finally, the integration of the three evaluation methods should contribute to creating a low carbon and more resource independent society.||Comprehensive evaluation on industrial & urban symbiosis by combining MFA, ...||Satoshi Ohnishi and Huijuan Dong and Yong Geng and Minoru Fujii and Tsuyoshi Fujita||Journal Article||academic||2017||
Carbon Footprint (CF)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Material Flow Analysis (MFA)
Research and Analysis
|Eco-benefits assessment on urban industrial symbiosis based on material flows analysis and emergy evaluation approach: A case of Liuzhou city, China Chinese government promotes ecological civilization in the “13th five year planning” (2016–2020) period. As a result, ecological impacts become highlight in the national circular economy practices. To apply the eco-industrial development strategy to address the intertwined industrial and regional economic development, as well as related environmental and ecological challenges is key point. Urban industrial symbiosis provides a novel approach to realize the above expectation. Traditional evaluation on circular economy provided critical environmental insights, while to date, ecological evaluation has been rather few for urban industrial symbiosis promotion. With this circumstance, this paper developed an integrated material flows analysis (MFA) and emergy evaluation model to investigate the environmental and ecological benefits of urban industrial symbiosis implementation in one typical industrial city in China. Local oriented urban industrial symbiosis network was analyzed. Inter flows and related environmental benefits of symbiotic network were quantified with MFA, and further ecological impacts were evaluated with emergy approach and the designed emergy index. From the environmental perspective, results highlighted, in general, urban industrial symbiosis generated significant life cycle environmental benefits, especially the reduction of upstream resource mining and downstream waste disposal within the regional metabolism. In total, around 204.7 million tons ore mining, 6.9 million ton solid waste and 2.3 million tons CO2 emissions were reduced per year. From the ecological perspective, total emergy input was reduced by 1.3×1022 sej, which reflected the reduction of ecological burden. Particularly, as a key indicator for ecological lost caused by pollution, dilution emergy was decreased by 2.5×1016 sej, resulting from carbon mitigation co-benefit of urban industrial symbiosis. This paper provided modeling approach to understand the ecological benefits and trade-offs of circular economy practices, and critical insights on regional eco-industrial development. It will shed a light on ecological civilization construction in China in the new national planning period. None||Eco-benefits assessment on urban industrial symbiosis based on material flows ...||Sun, Lu; Li, Hong; Dong, Liang; Fang, Kai; Ren, Jingzheng; Geng, Yong; Fujii, Minoru; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Zhe||Journal Article||academic||2017||
Single point in time
|Island Waste Management Systems: Statistics, Challenges, and Opportunities for Applied Industrial Ecology Island waste management professionals are faced with limited land resources, high energy costs, large seasonal fluctuations in waste volumes, and complex social and political dynamics that stem from their often closely knit societies. These and other factors can discourage typical waste management practices, but they also provide opportunities for island governments and businesses to explore alternative technologies and policies that suit their particular circumstances and that might be environmentally preferable. This critical review discusses the waste management literature on islands to date, including several industrial ecology (IE) studies. Common advantages and disadvantages faced by island waste management challenges are presented from the perspectives of business and municipal management. Waste generation data are presented from more than 40 islands around the world and tested for correlation with economic and geographic parameters and using cluster analysis, with the aim of identifying trends among island types. Poor data quality and comparability are ongoing challenges that underscore the potential benefits of a consistent program of island waste management data collection. Finally, the review explores opportunities for applying IE research to generate useful insights and policies in the areas of material flow analysis, industrial symbiosis, life cycle assessment, and social ecology.||Island Waste Management Systems: Statistics, Challenges, and Opportunities for Applied ...||Eckelman, M. J; Ashton, W; Arakaki, Y; Hanaki, K; Nagashima, S; Malone-Lee, L. C.||Journal Article||academic||2014||
Economy-Wide Material Flow Analysis (EW-MFA)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)