Ecological Footprints and interdependencies of New Zealand regions
Bicknell et al.'s [Ecological Economics 27 (1998) 149] input–output methodology is extended to investigate the Ecological Footprints and interdependencies of 16 regions in New Zealand. There is a particular focus on the Auckland region as a case study example of the application of the methodology. Auckland, New Zealand's primate city, was found to have the largest regional footprint of 2.32 million ha (20% of New Zealand's footprint). However, on a per capita basis it had the second lowest footprint of all regions at 2.00 ha per person. The footprint analysis was extended to demonstrate how Auckland was ecologically dependent on other regions, particularly the Waikato region. The footprints of other New Zealand regions are reported, along with international comparisons. The paper also reviews the theory and practice of Ecological Footprinting, as well as commenting on various methodological issues that have arisen in the calculation of Ecological Footprints.